Bassoon Digital Professor #30.
巴松管数码教授#30。

Translation by Hanyu Qu. 译:屈涵雨

<Music:Vivaldi's Concerto in E minor for bassoon and strings>
背景音乐:维瓦尔第 E小调巴松弦乐协奏曲

1.This is Terry Ewell and I am glad that you have returned for your second bassoon lesson. In this lesson we will be covering again the position of the bassoon and posture. We are going to look at the position of the right hand and introduce a few fingerings for the right hand. We are going to talk about how the angle of the bocal and reed should enter into the mouth. Then breathing technique through the mouth. And then conclude again with how to care for your bassoon when you put it away in the case.
您好我是英伟博士,很高兴你能来听我的第二节巴松课,这节课我将继续讲拿巴松的位置和姿势。我会讲到右手的正确握乐器位置以及演奏指法,还有巴松弯管和哨片放入嘴巴的角度,最后介绍呼吸方法以及一些保养巴松管的建议。

2.If you don't remember how to put the bassoon together, be sure to look at the first video.
如果你忘了怎样组装你的巴松管,一定要回顾第一个视频

3.To start this, I have brought my bassoon for this particular lesson. I have a
different sort of seat strap that has a ring that goes around the boot joint. You
might see some white material here. I pasted some white felt on that years ago. It
has worn off. I am due to put that on again. That cushions the ring so that it
doesn't scrape against the cap that is on the boot joint.
今天上这堂课我带来了我的乐器,我使用的座椅背带比较特别,是用一个环固定在巴松底端的,你可能看到这里有一些白白的材料,是我几年前涂上去的,现在部分颜色已经脱落了,嗯,我会再把它涂好的,因为这些胶状物可以减缓背带环和我的管的底端的摩擦。

4. Once again we need to position the bassoon underneath us. We have the support here .I wanted to talk about another way to support the bassoon as well. You might have noticed if you have seen my other videos that I use a neck strap or harness. On my bassoon I also have an extension.
再一次我们要把乐器放到下面这个位置,在这里支撑。我想要介绍一下另一个可以支撑巴松的方法,你可能也注意到了我在其他的视频里也使用了这个颈挂式背带,在我的巴松上也有一个连接的地方。

5.This one is custom made, but there are also other similar extensions made for the bassoon which hook on to the bassoon. It attaches on to the bassoon. I use the neck strap then to additionally support the bassoon. I takes all the weight off of my left hand. It also frees up my right hand.
我的这个是定制的,为巴松配备的也有很多相似的装在巴松上的连接勾。我用我的背带对我的乐器进行跟好的支持,这样可以解放我的左手,同时右手也可以更加灵活。

6.There are several other things that you can use for the neck strap. There is this little
leather leash-like thing that wraps around the tenor and long joint that some of my
students have used. The neck strap then attaches there.
乐器的其他地方也可以链接背带。我的有些学生是用一个像皮革带子一样的环住管体然后再把背带固定到这个上面的。

7.Most bassoon bocals are created in such a way as to play the bassoon with a neck strap, so that the bocal would enter straight into the mouth. However, since most of us play in a seated position now a days. I think it's helpful to have a bocal
with a little bit different bend. Bending and adjusting your bocal is something you should only have a repairman do .These are very expensive. But you can see here and in this particular bocal that my bocal is bent up a little bit more.
许多巴松弯管制造出来都是适合于演奏着带着背带去演奏的,这样弯管可以刚好对准嘴巴的位置。但需要注意的是,我们现在大多数时候都是坐下演奏的,所以弯管的弯度稍作调整会很有帮助。要改变弯管弯度你只能交给专业的巴松修理者,一般要价很高。 你可以看到跟这一个弯管对比我的弯管要更加向上弯曲一些。

8.This is helpful then for me with [positioning] the bocal to have the bassoon reed
come straight into the mouth.
这样的弯度可以很好的帮助我摆正姿势让哨片对准我的嘴巴。

9. That is the issue. We are looking for the most comfortable position for you as a
performer. Get seated. Sit straight up in the seat. Have the bocal come straight
into the mouth.
这就是问题的关键,我们主要是寻找你作为演奏着最合适的演奏姿势。坐下来,坐直,让巴松弯管对准嘴巴。

10.Now, let's take a look at my right hand in its position on bassoon.
I will come up to the camera again.
现在让我们来看看右手在巴松上的位置,我到离摄像机近一点的地方来。

11.I use a hand rest or a crutch because I have longer fingers. If you choose not to use a crutch, the important thing is not to lean on this key. These other fingers should not be moving from this particular joint. We want instead have free movement from the knuckles here and want to avoid then just collapsing our fingers and then moving more in this fashion. I created another video that's called "Fingering Technique" where you can see the reason for that.
因为我的手指很长,我用手托垫了一下。你最好不要垫东西,只要记住不要把指头贴在键子上,这很重要。我们希望在键子关节处灵活运动而不是食指和中指做僵硬的移动。我还做了一个关于巴松指法的视频来更好的解释其原因

12.So people with larger hands and bigger hands such as mine might find it very
helpful to have the bassoon crutch. Most bassoonists play with their crutch like this. I find it more comfortable like that. It's just a personal choice.
一些有着大手掌手指很长的人会觉得有一个这样的手托很有帮助,很多人是放上手托这样演奏的,但是我觉得这样会更加舒服一些,看你个人的选择。

13.Now for the fingerings for the second lesson we are going to learn to play B
natural [si], B2, and then A natural [la] which is A2, and then [sol], putting down
this fingering. This will help you further in your lesson materials.
下一节课我们将学习一些音的指法:还原si,就是B2,还原la,就是A2,还有还原so加按一个键子,这在课程教材里会有更详尽的说明。

14.I have to tell you now about something that is more radical. I am in the minority of bassoonists that breathe in this particular way. I breathe by dropping the lower jaw--the mandible--instead of raising the head. 95% of the bassoonists breathe like this.
我下面要讲的呼吸方法,可能有些小偏激,因为我是少数巴松演奏着用张开下颌这种独特方式来呼吸的。而不是像百分之九十五的巴松演奏着那样用张开上颌的方法呼吸。

15.I breathe like this. 我是这样呼吸的

16.I find that dropping the jaw allows for a quicker breath. I don't need to move my
entire head. The jaw being a smaller muscle [moves quicker]. When we talk we don't move our head up and down either and yet many people when they breathe on the bassoon anchor the lower lip breathing from above. If you play an instrument like oboe or something like that, the instrument is not fixed so the instrument can move and adjust. But our instrument is fixed [in place]. So I advocate that. I obviously allow my students to make their own choice. But I think it provides for superior and quicker breaths, and I think superior technique on the bassoon.
我发现用下颌呼吸可以帮助你更快的换气,我用不着去动整个头部,只需要下颌很小一部分肌肉运动就可以了(这样更快)。同样道理,当我们说话的时候我们也只是动下颌的肌肉而不是头部上下移动。有些人在演奏的时候就会偏向于把哨片放在下颌上移动上颌去呼吸,如果你是演奏双簧管那样的乐器你需要去固定下颌因为乐器本身是不固定的晃动的需要调整,但是我们的乐器是固定了的,所以我支持移动下颚去呼吸,我会让学生们去做他们自己的选择找到适合他们自己的呼吸方法,只是移动下颌呼吸确实换气更快更好,不失为演奏巴松理想的方法。

17.Now we're talking about breathing. In a moment you will see diagrams about
diaphragmatic breathing. That is using the diaphragm for breathing in and then
using other sets muscles to breathe out. You do not breathe out with the diaphragm.
You only breathe in with the diaphragm and the surrounding muscles.
现在我们来讲一讲怎样吸气,马上你就会看到腹式呼吸的图释,腹式呼吸是用横膈膜来吸气后用其他肌肉的带动呼气,注意不是用横隔膜呼气,我们只是用横隔膜和周围肌肉来带动吸气的。

<Music: Vivaldi's "La Notte">
背景音乐:维瓦尔第 – 夜晚