Bassoon Digital Professor #31.
巴松管数码教授#31。

Translation by Hanyu Qu. 译:屈涵雨

<Music:Vivaldi's Concerto in E minor for bassoon and strings>
背景音乐:维瓦尔第 E小调巴松弦乐协奏曲

1. We have two different sets of muscles that participate in our breathing in--inhalation--and breathing out, which is termed exhalation. So let's examine first the muscles that help us breathe in. The costal muscles are those muscles largely associated with the rib cage. Between the ribs we have muscles called the intercostal muscles that help of rib cage expand and move up and out. This draws in air with the lungs. This is a type of breathing that we might call chest breathing.
我们有两个不同部分的肌肉来帮助我们呼吸—呼入空气,和呼出空气。我们先来看看帮助呼吸的第一部分肌肉。这些肌肉大部分位于胸腔周围,在肋骨之间的肌肉叫做肋间肌,帮助胸腔扩张收缩来让空气得以进入肺部,这种呼吸方式我们叫做胸式呼吸。

2. We have another very important muscle that is called the diaphragm. The diaphragm is a domed-shaped muscle that sits underneath the lungs here and when you breathe in, the diaphragm flattens. Here is another picture with the diaphragm down here,and when this particular muscle contracts it draws in air.
另一个帮助我们呼吸十分重要的肌肉是横膈膜。横膈膜是位于肺部下侧圆盘式的膜状肌肉。当你呼入空气时,横膈膜舒展。这是关于横膈膜的另一个图片,当这部分肌肉收缩时我们就会呼入空气。

3. There have been some studies of the effect of these different sets of muscles. It's largely found that chest breathing accounts for about 40% of lung capacity and diaphragmatic breathing, that is, breathing using the diaphragm contributes the additional 60%. So you can see the diaphragm is very important for breathing and it's important that you learn how to do that.
有一些关于这两部分肌肉帮助呼吸的研究表明,胸式呼吸帮助肺部吸入的空气大约占其可吸入空气量的百分之四十,而腹式呼吸,则占了其可吸入空气量的百分之六十。所以你可以看到腹式呼吸对我们十分重要,腹式呼吸也是你需要掌握的重点。

4. Now normally when we breathe in we use muscles to breathe in and we just relax and the air goes out. However, with playing a wind instrument there is a good deal force that has to push through the wind instrument. (Here we have a little oboe reed pictured.) We need to use the abdominal muscles, the abdomen the muscles in this area to push out--as well as contributors from other areas--here to push out the air. The diaphragm never pushes out air. The diaphragm only brings in air. The abdominal muscles are the ones that push out air.
正常情况下,我们只有在吸气时用到肌肉而身体放松去呼气。但是在吹奏管乐器时,我们需要借助很大一部分力气去让气息通过乐器,这里有一个关于双簧管哨片的图片。我们需要借助于腹肌,在这里和其他的一些区域腹肌帮助扩张吹送气息。横膈膜只帮助帮助吸气,帮助呼气的是腹肌。

5. Now I often use the analogy of a bottle when describing a nice slow breath to beginners. You should first fill the bottle from the bottom: that means using the diaphragm to pull in the air. Then as the bottle fills (as it were), as the lungs expand, we allow the air to increase in the chest cavity allowing the chest—the intercostal muscles, and the costal muscles--to participate in that breathing.
在我对初学者描述怎样慢速吸气时,我常用瓶子的例子来做类比。把身体比作瓶子,你应该先装满瓶子底部,就是用横膈膜来吸入空气。当我们的瓶子慢慢被装满时,就是肺部开始扩张时,我们就要带动胸部的肌肉,肋间肌来尽量吸入空气。6. Obviously when you take a very quick breath both the diaphragm and costal muscles are breathing all together in one very swift breath.
很明显,当你快速吸气时,横膈膜和胸部肌肉都会快速运动。

7. OK, it is time to lie down on the floor and practice this other method
[diaphragmatic breathing].So get down on the floor, put your hand on your abdomen. We are going to get a sense of the proper movement of the diaphragm as the diaphragm moves down and pushes the internal organs out.
好啦,是时候躺卧来向你展示这种腹式呼吸的呼吸方法了。那么,先躺下来,把你的手放在腹部。我们将要试着去感受呼吸时横膈膜下压的感觉。

8. Ah, that is so relaxing. I think I could just go to sleep there!
It is important for you to understand the proper use of those muscles. How that feels with those muscles expanding. We don't want you breathing from the shoulders. The shoulders participate in the breathing, but only after the lower part of your body expands. The lungs expand from the base and expand up through the chest cavity and the shoulders simply rise.
We want to avoid chest breathing only. We want to use the entire lung capacity that you have. The bassoon is a wind instrument that uses a lot of air.
哦,躺倒实在是很舒适,我想我可以在这里睡觉了!好了,对你来说正确运用身体肌肉来帮助你呼吸非常重要。要感觉到肌肉的扩张。我们不希望呼吸的时候带起肩膀,在你气息下沉扩张时才可能带动肩膀,我们希望你吸入的气息能把整个肺部充满。巴松这样的乐器是很需要气息支持的。

9. OK, we are coming to the end of our second lesson. It is time once again take the bassoon part. I showed in the first lesson how to take apart the other bassoon and I am going to take apart my bassoon too.
好啦,我们的第二堂课即将进入尾声。现在又到了我们注意如何拆解放回乐器的时候了。我在第一堂课讲过如何拆乐器,现在我要在用我的乐器演示一遍。

10. Everything needs to be stowed in the right place, so I put away the crutch, the hand rest. You will notice that my case is a little bit smaller.
Now next I take the bocal. I actually blow out the water out of the bocal.
巴松的每部分需要放在对的地方,我先把手托取下来。你可以看到我的乐器盒要小一些。现在我取下吹口管,其实我可以从吹口管吹出少量水来。

11. I put down a piece of paper here so I don't get things too messed up. Put away the bocal.
我方一张纸在这里保持桌面整洁。

12. Next comes off the bell joint.  Take off my contraption here. Stow that away.Take off my guard.
然后我把扬音管取下,把我的平衡挂钩也取下来,放好,去掉保护管体的装置。

13. Next is the long joint coming off.
然后再把长管拆下来。

14. Now, I keep a cloth between my two joints to avoid the joints rubbing against each other. Next we take off the tenor joint. This is the thing I wanted to make sure you saw: When you take off the boot joint keep that up[right]. Be sure that you dump the water out from a little hole. I don't have much water here. This part is lined: there is a rubber lining that goes down there. This part is not [lined]. You want to avoid any water touching wood.
现在你可以看到我在两个管间衬了一块布防止它们的摩擦。下面我们来取下支管。下面这是我想保证你一定要看到的重点:当你取下底管时把它竖直放置。保证你把水从小孔里磕出来,我的乐器这次没有存太多水。这个小孔里面是有橡胶材料的衬里的。而这个相对较大的孔里没有。你需要避免水去接触木头。

15. Well, now it is time to swab out the bassoon. Again you put down the swab in the big hole. It comes out the little hole. Pull it through.
好啦,现在就到擦乐器时间啦。再一次把擦管布放到大孔里再从小孔处拉出来

16. And similarly, swab from the big end first. Make sure your swab is not tangled up. Then pull it through. Pull it through this end.
然后同样的先把擦管布放到大孔里,要保证你的布没有打结,好,从小孔中拉出来,拉到底端

17. We just swabbed out the bassoon.
我们这就把乐器擦拭完毕了。


<Music: Vivaldi's "La Notte">
背景音乐:维瓦尔第 – 夜晚