1. Welcome, to Weissenborn study #21. I am Terry Ewell.
This is a very challenging study in many aspects. Rhythmically the study is difficult for students to perform. Take, for instance, the first measure. This is best mastered with eighth note subdivisions. You must subdivide the dotted quarter note in order to perform it accurately.


Example 1. Performance of m. 1 with subdivisions indicated.

Line 1, subdivisions

2. Notice how I arrange my marks for eighth notes. The longer marks indicate the beats and the shorter marks indicate the middle of beats. I find that this helps me better keep track of the rhythm.


3. The turn in measure 3 of the first line is another place that needs to be subdivided. I will first tongue eighth notes and then play it as written.

Example 2. Performance of m. 3 with subdivisions indicated.

Example 2

4. Be sure to study the written out 32nds Weissenborn has supplied with measure 3.


5. Weissenborn does not provide written notations for the turns in line 2, the last measure. I play this as a sixteenth, triplet 32nds, and two sixteenths:

Example 3: performance and written notation.

Example 3

6. One of the other difficult measures for correct rhythmic performance is found in line 6, the 1st measure. The eighth note subdivisions again help with accuracy.


Example 4: performance and written notation.

Example 4

7.  Once the notes are mastered, however, there is still more practice to be done! Weissenborn marks the beginning cantabile and the recapitulation con espressione. Thus, the music needs to be “sung” and with expression. This is best done by feeling quarter note beats and moving the music forward to musical goals and relaxing the music after those goals are reached. Please consider my discussion in Bassoon Digital Professor #100 about how motion is made in music.

7,掌握了这些音符,还有更多的练习要做。维斯伯恩在呈示部标记了cantabile如歌的”,再现部con espressione“富于表情的”。因此,音乐需要被富有表现力的“唱”出来。感受到四分音符节拍并让音乐向前流动,在抵达所有目标之后音乐舒缓下来,这是最佳的演奏效果。请参考我的巴松管数码教授#100有关音乐中的运动的讨论。

8. I will be discussing more completely how to practice trills in Study #37. However, here in line 2, measure 1 consider how to create a long trill that is musically shaped by increasing in speed. Don’t play it in a totally metronomic fashion like this:


Example 5 poor.

Example 5

9. Instead practice shaping the trill in different ways.


Example 5 good.

Example 5

10. Last of all I use the alternative fingerings for Gb2 and Ab2 in line 6. In the music I mark alternative fingerings with an upside down “A.”

10. 最后在第6行Gb2和Ab2,我都使用了替代指法。在音乐中,我用一个颠倒的“A”标记替代指法。

11. Let’s look at some of the fingerings for trills and mordents in this study. For the first trill in line 2, measure 1 we use the normal fingerings. Start C4 with the flick key and then trill between C and D. In line 2 we have the first occurrence of mordents in the Weissenborn studies. The fingerings for these mordents are also the standard fingerings. So for E4 to F4 use your standard E to F, and for C4 to D4 use your standard C to D fingerings.

11,让我们来看看这课练习中一些颤音和波音的指法。第2行第一小节的第一个颤音,我们用普通的指法。 C4开始用小键,然后C和D之间颤音。在第2行我们遇到了维斯伯恩练习中的第一个波音。这些波音的指法也是标准的指法。所以,从E4到F4使用标准的E到F,C4到D4使用标准的C到D的指法。

12. However, let’s discuss the mordent a little bit. In the Baroque period and the contemporary use of the German term “mordent” has a downward motion. You can observe this in the German editions of the Weissenborn Bassoon School. However, in the English language the term “mordent” means an upward motion. The Germans call this a short trill or a pralltriller. This can be confusing for English speakers because mordent in English is an upward motion whereas in the Baroque period and the contemporary German usage it is downward. Mordents are played at differing speeds. You can see in the upper example there are triplet 16ths and in the bottom example there are even faster notes.

12,下面让我们来谈谈波音。在巴洛克时期和现代,德国术语“mordent”波音用于向下运行。你可以在维斯伯恩巴松管学校的德语版本里发现这一点。然而,在英语中,术语“mordent”指的是向上运动。德国人称之为短颤音或波音。这点很容易让说英语的人混淆,因为mordent在英文中是一个向上的运动,而在巴洛克时期和当代德国的用法是向下。 波音可以在不同的速度下演奏。你可以在上面16分三连音的例子和最后出现更快音符的例子中看到它。

13. In line 3, measure 1 the trill here is from Bb3 to C4. This is a trill that needs to be made by moving the ring fingering in the left hand. And in line 6, measure 3 we have a trill from C to Db. You have two choices here. The one I favor is trilling the D key and the C# key. This, however, can be a little more awkward. The second choice is to use the C# trill key that is on the instrument. This is of course  a very easy trill to execute. However, I find the interval, the distance between C4 and Db4 to be a little too narrow. For that reason I choose the first alternative.