Transcript

译:梁潇

TUTORIAL教程

Welcome, this is Terry Ewell. Weissenborn study #35 is the case study for the rinforzando or “rf” markings. Weissenborn uses this mark throughout his studies to indicate a special type of emphasis in the quieter dynamics. Let’s examine the two comparable passages in the study that illustrate how the “rf” markings are employed.

欢迎大家!我是唐英伟。《维斯伯恩高级练习曲》第35首是一首针对“突强”标记的练习曲。维斯伯恩在他的练习曲中把这个记号标记在特殊的地方,比如在比较弱的乐段中起突出的作用。让我们来看看突强标记“rf”在这首练习曲中的两个类似乐段里是如何使用的。

 

 

 

rF in Weissenborn 35

Notice the similarity between the musical passages. At the start of the study the “rf” is placed as the climax of a quieter dynamic. In lines 9 and 10 a “sf” is placed at the climax in the louder dynamic. Thus you can see that “rf” is a special kind of stress in the quieter dynamics much like “sf” is a special kind of stress in the louder dynamics. You might say that “rf,” rinforzando, is a quieter “sf,” sforzando. The “sf” can also be written as “sfz.”

注意一下这两个乐段的相似性。在这首练习曲的开头,突强“rf”位于弱乐句的高潮。在第9和第10行,另一个突强“sf”位于强乐句的高潮。这样我们可以看出,同是突强,“rf”特指用于较弱的环境中,而“sf”特定用于较强的环境中。你也可以说,“rf”是弱版的“sf”。“sf”有时也写作“sfz”。

Many students make the mistake of thinking that staccato notes are always short. Staccato doesn’t mean short, it means separated. There should be some length to the opening staccato notes.

很多学生都会错误地认为跳音总是很短的。跳音并不意味着短,而是分开的断奏。我们在演奏跳音的时候应该留有一定的长度

Weissenborn 35 Line 1

In line 2 the portato notes, that is, staccato notes with slurs over them, are performed with even greater length.

第二行的次断音,也就是跳音上面带有连线的音,通常被演奏得更加长些。

Portato

Do you remember the five articulation lengths we practiced in the earlier studies? The lengths of these notes here should be 4 or 5. If you have mastery over these lengths, you can even create phrase shaping with notes lengths. For instance, I will play this passage and increase the note lengths from 4 to 5 in order to provide musical motion to the G#3 on the downbeat of line 3, measure 1.

你还记得我们在早先的练习曲里讲过的五种发音方式吗?这些次断音的长度应该在4或者5。如果你对这些长度已经了如指掌了,那么你可以用不同的音的长度来美化乐句了。举例来说,对于这个乐句,我会把音的长度从4变为5,这样一来,我就可以使得音乐向第三行第1小节的第一拍升G3流动了。

changing articulation

Don’t forget that accidentals carry through the measure. In line 4 measure 5 there are two D sharps. Line 5 measure 1 also has two D sharps.

不要忘记,临时升降号在整个小节都适用。第四行的第5小节有两个升D,第五行的第1小节也有两个升D。

Accidentals

A staccato mark refers to the length of the note not the start of the note. It doesn’t mean that the note is tongued just because there is a staccato mark over it. For instance, in line 9 the dots over the notes indicate a separation between it and the next note, however, they are slurred not tongued.

跳音记号是指音符的长度,而不是作用于这个音符开始的时候。这并不意味着因为上面有跳音记号的时候这个音吹奏成单吐音。 例如,第九行音符上的点表明这个音符和下一个音符之间应该是断开的,虽然它和前一个音是连起来的,而和下一个音之间不是吐音连接。

Line 9

F#3 starts with the tongue and then slurs to E#3. Two beats later B3 starts with the tongue then slurs down to A3.

升F3从吐音开始然后通过连线连到升E3。两拍后,B3也从吐音开始然后通过连线连到A3。

There are a few alternate fingerings I use in the study. In line 3 at the fermata I use the thumb G# key for a smoother transition from F#4. My standard F#4 uses the right hand little finger.

在这首练习曲中,我使用几个替换指法。在第三行的延长记号,我用拇指演奏升G键,这样就能平稳地从升F4过渡了。我的标准升F4用右手小指演奏。

Line 3

In line 7, measure 6 I use the trill fingering for the fast B3 to C#4 exchange.

在第七行的第6小节,我使用装饰音颤音的指法演奏B3到升C4的过渡。

Line 7
Similarly in line 10, measure 2 I also use the trill fingering for movements between F#4 and G#4.

同样地,第10行的第2小节,我也使用了装饰音颤音指法演奏升F4到升G4的运动。

Line 10

Weissenborn #37 will provide methods for practicing trills. Let me provide some fingerings, however, for this study. For the trill in Line 4 in the first complete measure use this fingering.

《维斯伯恩高级练习曲》第37首会为我们提供装饰音颤音的练习方法。但现在,让我先就这首练习曲给你一些指法的建议  。第四行第一个完整小节的颤音, 使用这个指法。

Line 4

 

For the second trill in that line use this fingering.

同一行的第二个颤音用这个指法。

Line 4

For the trill in line 9 you have two choices. I prefer the left hand C#4 but you can also use the C# trill key.

你有两个选择来演奏第九行的颤音。我更倾向于使用左手升C4,但你也可以使用升C颤音键。

TrillTrill 2

This is the first study with high C#, C#5. I use one of these three fingerings depending on my needs. The first fingering is the most common. It is not quite as full or loud as the last fingering, but is the easiest to use of the three and enunciates quite well. I almost always use both the D and C vent keys when I play this note.

1.    这是我们第一次在练习曲中遇到较高的升C,那就是升C5。我通常根据我的需要从这三种指法中来选择。第一种是最常用的。比起最后一种,这种指法产生的声音并不是很饱满和洪亮,但却是三种中最容易的,并且发声效果不错。当我演奏这个音时,我基本上总是会同时使用D和C键。

The second fingering provides a good approach to D#5, when needed. The last fingering is especially good when a loud dynamic is needed. This fingering is my choice for the exalted C#5 in the Shostakovich 9th symphony, fourth movement.

 第二种指法在我们需要的时候提供了演奏升D5的好方法。而在我们需要演奏较强的情绪时,最后一种指法就是很好的选择了。当我演奏肖斯塔科维奇第九交响曲的第四乐章中那个情绪高昂的升C5时,我就选择了这个指法。

C#5 fingerings

This is the first study in the collection that uses marcato markings. Marcato markings indicate even more forceful and intense accents than regular accents. Weissenborn further provides the term marcatissimo  to emphasize the extreme accents in line 9.

这是我们在这套练习曲中第一次遇到加强记号。加强记号意味着比普通的重音记号更加强烈和紧张。维斯伯恩在第九行标注了marcatissimo(非常清晰)来特意强调重音。

marcato

Notice the similarity between the quieter passage in line 6 and the louder passage in line 9.  I have marked in breaths in lines 6-7 and 9-10. You don’t need to actually breathe each time, however, provide separation there and don’t breathe after the pair of slurred quarter-notes.

请注意第六行较安静的段落和第九行较强乐段的相似性。我在第6-7和9-10行标注了呼吸换气的地方。你虽然不用每一次都呼吸,但是,你要记得在那里断开并且不要在带有连线的四分音符后呼吸换气。

REFLECTION 沉思

Musical Expression vibrato

音乐表现之润色颤音


In this reflection I will discuss vibrato. First I will identify possible sources for the vibrato and then recommend the use of a certain sound production component to produce vibrato.

在今天的“思考时间”里,我们来讨论颤音,这里指不同于装饰音颤音的润色颤音。首先,我先要确定有可能产生颤音的来源,然后建议大家使用哪个发声部件来演奏颤音。

Then I will apply “vibrato drives” or vibrato phrasing to some examples from the study and conclude with some exercises for vibrato mastery.

  接下来,我会在练习曲中的一些例子里运用“颤音训练”或者“颤音乐句”,并用几个练习来帮助你掌握。

Some of the material provide here is drawn from the Second Chapter of my monograph titled “Wind Performer’s Guide to Increasing Endurance.”

这里提供的一些材料选自我的文章《关于木管乐演奏家如何增加耐力的指导》的第二章。

Bassoon performers have created vibrato from most of the five components for sound production: Component 1, the abdominal muscles; component 2, the throat area (larynx); from component 3, the back or pharangeal part of the tongue (this is the part of the tongue in the upper throat); and from component 5, the embouchure.

巴松演奏者通常运用五个部分中的这几个来演奏颤音:第一部分,腹部肌肉;第二部分,咽喉区(喉);第三部分,舌头后部或咽部(这是舌头位于喉咙上半区的部分);以及第五部分,吹口。

Five Components

Component 1, the abdominal area, produces a slow and heavily pulsing vibrato. Many performers think that they produce vibrato from the abdominal area, but X-ray videos and small camera scopes have shown that the vibrato most bassoonists make originates in the throat area. These performers are probably feeling the back pressure in the abdominal area from the motions in the throat. When I produce a slow vibrato I have the sensation of vibrato in my abdominal area. As I increase the speed of the vibrato, however, the sensation appears to move up the wind column towards the throat.

组件一,腹部肌肉,会使我们演奏出缓慢、沉重并且有节奏的颤音。许多演奏者都认为他们的颤音是通过腹部产生的,但是X-光视频和小型照相机所捕捉到的资料显示,多数巴松演奏者的颤音是由咽喉区产生的。 这些演奏者很可能是通过咽喉区的运动感受到了腹部区域背后的压力。当我要演奏慢速的颤音时,我能感觉到腹部也在产生颤音。然而当我加快颤音震动的速度时,这种感觉演变成气流向咽喉部分涌动。

Vibrato perceived motion

I do not recommend vibrato made from components 1 and 5. Component 1, the abdominal muscles should be employed for dynamic changes only. It also doesn’t produce the variety of speeds needed. When component 5, the embouchure or jaw, is used for vibrato it can vary the pitch too much. In addition, it is best to reserve the embouchure for tuning and shaping notes.  

我不建议运用第一和第五部分来制造颤音。第一部分,也就是腹部肌肉应该只运用于我们需要强弱变化的时候。这样也不能产生出我们需要的变化的速度。当我们运用第五部分,也就是吹口或者下巴来演奏颤音的时候,我们的音准会变化太大。另外,我们最好把吹口部分留到调整音高和润色音色的时候使用。

I recommend using the throat area, component 2, since this area is not employed for any other sound production needs. Component 2 can then operate independently from the other components. Some performers also sympathetically move part of the tongue in the throat when they create vibrato.
Many vibrato studies of woodwind instrument performers indicate that although the mechanisms for vibrato are contained in the throat area, the muscle groups used for vibrato can vary widely. There are many moving parts in our throat areas. Some parts are used by certain performers and other muscles and structures are employed by other people for vibrato.

我建议使用咽喉区,也就是第二部分,因为这个部分不涉及其他声音的产生过程。第二部分与其他组件是相互独立的。一些演奏家也赞同制造颤音的时候运动咽喉区的部分舌头。 很多木管演奏家对于颤音的研究表明,尽管颤音的原理产生于咽喉区,制造颤音时涉及到的肌肉群却很广泛。我们的咽喉区有很多部分都在运动。一些演奏者会用某些部分,而其他人会用到另外的肌肉和结构来制造颤音。

Larynx

Larynx  Illustration from Henry Gray, Anatomy of the Human Body, 1918, accessed from www.bartleby.com, 16 Aug 2006.

I provide references at the end of the video (see the transcript for Weissenborn 35B) if you wish to learn more about vibrato.

 如果你想了解更多有关颤音的知识,我在这个视频的最后提供了一些素材供你参考。